Hello, everyone! This post is the third in my series entitled “Echoes of the Exposition,” which delves into how the World’s Columbian Exposition has impacted travel and tourism in the City of Chicago, both at the time of the event and up until today, with specific instances and topics being highlighted in each post. My first two posts explain the Wellington Hotel and the Ferris Wheel, in case anyone is interested. The post at hand is in regards to transportation to and from the World’s Fair, and specifically, the ability of railways to improve Chicago in terms of crowd control and as an entire city.
The ‘L’ (or the Alley Elevated Road) is my focus throughout this post, but two other railways are discussed: Illinois Central Railroad and the Intramural Railway within the fair itself. A few stations are also highlighted, namely the Jackson Park Station, with another important one being the Garfield Station (or Fifty-fifth Street). My goal for this post is to display how the purposes and effectiveness of these particular railways were involved in the handling of World’s Fair attendees, and how the goals of the then-new ‘L’ transit system have developed up until the present day. Keep in mind that some other terms for the ‘L’ stated throughout this post are are ‘elevated trains,’ ‘elevated roads,’ ‘elevated railway,’ and the ‘L,’ as will be explained later on.
I first became interested in the ‘L’ and its utilization a few weeks ago, and finding references to it while researching for previous posts made me determined to find a way to make this post you are now reading possible. There is much information to be digested in terms of transportation for the World’s Fair, and even just with the ‘L’ and its development, so I hope I curated a bit of information well; feel free to do more exploring in regards to the ‘L’ as a whole, since it is quite fascinating.
Just as with my previous posts, I hope you all enjoy what is the result of a week’s worth of research and writing, and possibly offer me feedback and ideas for future posts. If anyone would like to see the sources in which I found the information referenced throughout this post, please note that the sources are indicated by number in parentheses; under “Sources” at the end of the post, each number has a corresponding citation. Once again, please enjoy!
“Everybody who comes to the World’s Fair should by all means bring his steam yacht.”
In June 1893, the New York Times published such an assertion; for those not able to conduct such a grand gesture, though, other transportation options were presented, with the “least eligible” of them being the elevated train. The following quotation represents how this mode of transit was perceived at this point in the duration of the World’s Columbian Exposition, in association with the statements that each ride was as inexpensive as cable trains and in-between the cable cars and the Illinois Central “cattle-cars” in terms of length (1):
At least such is the claim of made on behalf of it, though the frequent stops and the extreme tedium of the journey leave an impression of exasperating slowness, and, to judge by one’s sensations, it is no faster than the cable cars. It vividly recalls our own beloved Manhattan in the character of the scenery, except that this one commands a view almost exclusively of back windows and of back windows of a curiously dismal and squalid kind. It is easily accessible from only one point in the grounds, it is commonly crowded, even as the Third Avenue in the afternoon, and to travel by it is an ordeal relieved only by the remote certainty of arrival.
Over a year before this assertion was made, on April 30, 1892, those representing the World’s Fair, Illinois Central Railroad, Woodlawn Park property owners, and the South Park Commissioners met to discuss plans to elevate the tracks from Fifty-first to Sixty-third streets of the Illinois Central line. A compromise could not be made, and of this result, President Baker did not possess much confidence, citing that it would take nine months to conduct the elevation; thus, with all of the disruption and refusal, the process that was “virtually necessary to the success of the Exposition” and should have been completed by that October seemed unfeasible (2). Consequently, it is clear that elevated trains, including those of the Illinois Central Railroad that already existed, were a significant component as to how visitors of the event would be garnered.
Later on, discussions were had about what extent to which the “elevated roads” would be complete throughout Chicago by the time of the World’s Fair. On May 7, 1892, the Chicago Daily Tribune declared new information about the Lake Street elevated road, as the article states that materials had been ordered for that line, along with the western lines; Colonel Alberger states of this progress within the corresponding article, “The Lake street elevated road will be completed and have trains running before the World’s Fair opens.” Furthermore, the desire for help from those of Illinois Central for the tracks are stated, as it was assumed that developments would garner people from Western Chicago to the fair, and the expensive, but possibly valuable, existence of a line on the South Side and near Congress Street is also claimed (3).
The value of the ‘L’ is further shown in a Chicago Daily Tribune article published on May 24, 1892, as it explains the push for an extension of the alley road to Englewood, and “through Sixty-third street and terminating at a point on Stewart avenue in the heart of the town.” The rationale for this encouragement, as stated, is that crowds could then be dealt with more effectively, since passengers could exit the train for the World’s Fair without taking them into the city (4).
On the same day, an article aptly titled “FAIR DIRECTORS WIN”was published, stating that by a vote of 62-2, the Illinois Central track elevating ordinance passed through the city council. The article also explains that the ordinance’s content passed “in practically the same form that it was reported by the Committee on Streets and Alleys south,” showing that the wish for an extensive elevated track system would be granted (5).
May 27, 1892: On this day, the first “‘Alley’ Elevated Railroad” in Chicago opened to 300 guests in order to demonstrate its qualities, as announced in the New York Times the following day; demonstrating the times, women would be allowed to ride the next day, while the road would open to the public on June 6. Neither delays, nor accidents occurred, and thus, the event was viewed as a success. The corresponding article also notes that this part of the road was in an alley between State Street and Wabash Avenue, and south from Congress Street to Fortieth Street. Of the system’s future, the article states (6):
Just where it will ultimately end nobody is yet prepared to say, but there will be a branch to the World’s Fair grounds in operation by next year.
The Chicago Daily Tribune also ran an extensive article on May 28, 1892 of this first trial run, noting the positive qualities of these “Six coaches, resplendent in olive green and yellow paint, hauled by engine No. 15” that made their way through the railroad, which was also called the “South Side Rapid Transit railroad.” In particular, this article commends how the train seems to bring people of different walks of life together (7). Consequently, this early incarnation of the ‘L’ showed the ability of transportation to create a common purpose for people, even for future events such as the World’s Columbian Exposition.
Just as expected, the ‘L’ (this first line being owned by the private South Side Rapid Transit Railroad Company; 8) made its public debut on June 6, 2017, and the day’s events were described in the Chicago Daily Tribune issue published the following day. The run was seen as a success, as its first round at 7 AM took fourteen minutes; of the line itself, the article states “Everything about the line denotes solidity, and at the same time an attempt to make the equipment and the stations as handsome and convenient as possible.” Of the system’s flaws, it is claimed that they would be solved in time for the incoming crowds of the World’s Fair (9).
The growing need for elevated roads is argued in a Chicago Daily Tribune article published on July 1, 1892, as the Real Estate Board had met and found that rapid transit was one of the three major needs of Chicago, along with pure water and great drainage. In fact, four reasons are stated in the article in regards to why the use of a large elevated railway system is beneficial, one of them being the following (10):
The reputation of Chicago. Our lack of proper transportation facilities is a blot on our fair city.
The prior ideas were clearly taken into account, as on August 4, 1892, plans for an October 1 opening of an extension of the elevated trains to the entrance of the exposition at Sixty-seventh Street was announced. At the time, it was expected that train that traveled at 20 miles an hour, with twenty-five cars running at the start, would be plenty ready for the World’s Fair dedication; the line would connect with the ‘L’ at Sixty-third Street, thus decreasing the amount of time necessary to reach the city, and making it “the best road in the country” (11).
As of August 9, 1892, 300 workers of Illinois Central were working on the elevation of their tracks tirelessly, as they were determined to complete the work by the time of the World’s Columbian Exposition. Plans were also made in regards to suburban stations, but those for how the trains would run at the fair itself were not decided yet, as it was assumed that they would arrive every two minutes, “carrying trains around the loop south of the grounds and back again to town at a high rate of speed” (12).
The positive real-estate effects of developing elevated roads were also described in the Chicago Daily Tribune on September 25, 1892, as transportation facilities as a whole are commended within the corresponding article. The need for quick development of the South Side elevated train is specifically described, and further claims for the likeliness of a West Side elevated road and the future growth of electric lines are discussed as well (13).
During the week prior to the dedication ceremonies for the World’s Columbian Exposition, an update on the progress made on the elevated roads was presented. The new Alley ‘L’ station on the south side of Garfield Boulevard was not yet complete, but the track had been extended to Fifty-fifth Street; thus, the passengers would have to walk the rest of the way to the fair (14). Then, on October 20, 1892, information regarding how to reach Jackson Park for the World’s Fair dedication was presented to readers of the Chicago Daily Tribune, including the fact that a mile-long walk would have to be taken to the grounds from the terminal at Fifty-fifth Street, though the likely-crowded street cars could possibly transport guests back from the grounds. The schedule for handling the passengers is stated in the article as the following (15):
From 12 midnight to 5 a. m. three-car trains at intervals of fifteen minutes; 5 a. m. to 7 a. m. four-car trains at four-minute intervals; 7 a. m. to 9 p. m. five-car trains at four-minute intervals; 9:30 p. m. to 12 midnight four-car trains at four-minute intervals.
On October 22, 1892, the methods by which the crowds–and the said “mighty problem of transportation”–were dealt throughout October 21, the day of the dedication, were described by the Chicago Daily Tribune. Within the article, it is stated that the South Side Alley Elevated road was just one of the modes of transportation utilized, in addition to ones such as cable cars and cross-town cars. This one mode was still put to good use, though, as it is stated that the cars were full “From engine to guard chains on the rear platform of the last car.” On a more positive note, though, the magnificent views of the fair’s grounds and a military parade from the elevated roads are also described with detail within the write-up (16).
Chauncey M. Depew of New York, not long after the dedication ceremonies took place, made his displeasure and worries about transportation known. He did admit that getting people to the grounds would not be an issue (such as the 200,000 attendees he estimated of the dedication ceremonies), due to the many methods available, including the elevated roads, railways, and boats. All the while, though, he claimed that moving 100,000 people out of the area would be difficult. For the Paris Fair, he explained, people left at different times, and even at closing, people exited right into the heart of the city; for that of Jackson Park, it was likely that visitors would all leave at the same time and need transportation to other areas. Also, he notes that the number of attendees would determine the profit of the World’s Fair, and once again states that the hotels of Chicago will handle the guests, but that the transit systems, such as the elevated road that “could take away about 5,000 per hour,” would have difficulty accommodating their departures from the grounds (17). Consequently, the need for crowd control was clearly visible, and surely a priority at the time.
New York’s eagerness to criticize Chicago continued, as on October 24, 1892, an article about transportation for the World’s Fair was published in the New York Times. The uncompleted elevated road specifically was not seen as particularly promising, but the overall outlook on the fair’s ability to deal with crowds was especially denounced. The following quote represents these overlying thoughts (18):
The dedicatory exercises at Jackson Park last Friday proved one thing beyond the possibility of dispute, and that is that the existing means of transportation between Chicago and the fair are entirely inadequate. They will have to be not merely extended, but entirely reconstructed before next Spring, in order to make the passage anything less than a painful and dangerous ordeal.
Interestingly, all the while, a plan as to handle the large expected mass of mail to be delivered in association with the World’s Columbian Exposition was created, showing that even mail needed to be carried at the higher speeds that people desired. An elevated road of sorts was planned through the use of an electric cable that could sustain a speed of 200 miles per hour as the mail went from the fair grounds and the “Chicago Postoffice” (19).
In the November 16, 1892 issue of the Chicago Daily Tribune, details of said mail plans and their requests for approval in regards to their use for one year are stated, along with information about the elevated roads for passengers of the human kind. The expected completion of stations within the South Side elevated road are stated, but for the World’s Fair station itself, construction went behind schedule, due to the Homestead strike. Now, instead of the January 1, 1893 projection for the road’s ability to reach the fair’s grounds, it was expected that trains would not reach that branch until at least February 1 (20).
The first electric railway also received a specific opening date, being April 1, 1893 (after a trial run about a month prior), as announced on January 8, 1893. Joy spread as a result of this progress, as employees had been “tramping to their offices through a mile or more of snow from the nearest railway station.” The elevated railway’s cars would hold 100 passengers, and 12 miles per hour was the speed at which people predicted they would run, as they would go between the ten stops over three and a half miles. One of the stops throughout the grounds would be the Transportation Building, the location of the Alley ‘L’ station (of which its employed materials would be heavier than those of the electric railway, but a bit less risky); the payoff of the electric railway would later be seen (21). In an article published in the Chicago Daily Tribune on January 14, 1893 about the expected revenue sources of the World’s Fair, it is stated that this electric Intramural Railroad would cost ten cents per passenger (two and a half going directly to the World’s Fair), and thus bring in about $400,000 if it carried 16,000,000 people; for context, the Barré railway from Cottage Grove Avenue to the Midway Plaisance was expected to bring in $100,000 (22).
Railways remained a part of the conversation about the improvement of Chicago, as on February 21, 1893, a recommendation for a elevated road for the West Division was stated in the Chicago Daily Tribune, of which its exact route is described in detail within the corresponding article (23). As such, it is clear that the elevated road’s potential to the rising City of Chicago was clear to Chicagoans like Ald. Kent.
One expectation made in regards to the World’s Columbian Exposition specifically was that many people would want to spend their entire day at the fair, and simply desire a place inexpensive enough to allow them to stay longer than they otherwise could have. Consequently, a plan for a “temperance encampment” that cost $7 a week developed, to be placed between elevated road stations one block north and south of its position on the northwest corner of Indiana and Fifty-seventh Street; Garfield Boulevard was one block north (which was likely where its aforementioned station was). Of its convenient location near Washington Park, it was stated, “Its patrons can take the elevated road and be landed in Jackson Park, or they can walk diagonally through the park in a few minutes and enter the plaisance gate” (24). This association demonstrates the importance of the elevated roads to tourism and crowd control at the time.
The opening of the World’s Fair eventually approached, and on April 23, 1893, the New York Times described this event, especially in regards to the 2,000 people invited to the opening activities. Transportation was still seen as a downfall for the fair at the time, as predictions of the inefficiency of the various options to accommodate visitors are stated within the corresponding article; the elevated rails of Illinois Central at the entrance of the exposition are said to be the “popular route,” but a risky one seen by the newspaper as a “menace to life.” One source of hope, though, was the fact that the elevated road, which had finally made its way to the grounds of the fair, was the only of its kind in the city, and would begin its schedule the following day (25).
It has been stated, though, that the Jackson Park ‘L’ station’s completion did not correspond with the official opening of the World’s Columbian Exposition. Therefore, attendees would be required to disembark at the Madison Avenue (or Dorchester) station, as it had opened on April 23, 1893, and then walk on a special path on the ‘L’ line to the fair, where the rails themselves had already been connected to (26).
Effects of the World’s Fair, and of the elevated roads, on the South Side of Chicago were also predicted around this time, as on April 24, 1893, the Chicago Daily Tribune article entitled “RENTS ON THE SOUTH SIDE” was published. In addition to the cable line, the Alley ‘L’ is claimed as a way by which the “southern end of Michigan avenue in the neighborhood of Sixty-first street” could become greater connected to the business center, which many people were expected to take advantage of (27).
“HOW TO REACH JACKSON PARK: There Are Many Routes by Steam, Surface, and Elevated Roads, as Well as by Water” is the title of an article published in the New York Times on April 30, 1893, which outlines the modes of transportation people, particularly readers of the newspaper, could utilize in order to reach the fair grounds. The fact that Illinois Central Railroad elevated its tracks that ran from Lake Street to the center of Chicago, and then to Jackson Park, is stated, in addition to information regarding the Alley Elevated Road. At the time, it was claimed that 40,000 people could board the elevated trains per hour each way, as people could enter from Congress Street and then exit at the station near the Transportation Building. The line had twenty stations at the time, and two types of travel: express (which took twenty minutes) and local, the latter briefly stopping at every station (28). As shown, plans as for how the elevated rails could positively impact the transportation of the large amount of people in attendance for the World’s Columbian Exposition had been created.
After the first day of the World’s Columbian Exposition, May 1, 1893, the Chicago Daily Tribune published an article in regards to its attendance. An estimated 400,000 people visited the fair, and in terms of railways, the Illinois Central Railway had 185,000 passengers from 6:30 AM to 7:30 PM, and suburban trains carried 92,500. As expected by the aforementioned articles from the New York Times, the crowds dealt with at the fair’s closing at 6 PM were unprecedented in Chicago, and taking care of everyone leaving was difficult; the article states of the selfishness seen that everyone seemingly wanted to utilize the “superior terminal facilities of the elevated road” at the same time. Furthermore, a misunderstanding with ticket sales occurred, since sales stopped in order to deal with crowds, the largest of which was “at the station in the grounds,” but once extra trains were added, the issue resolved itself. Still, the ‘L’ was in high demand, with an estimated 200,000 passengers taking advantage of its new schedule; of the mode of transit, the article states the following (29):
But it was for the L cars that the great crush came and the guards inside the gates and forty policemen outside the gates were unable to keep order. At 5 o’clock the stairways to the elevated station near the Transportation Building were packed tight with people who were unable to get on the platforms on account of the crowds there or to retreat.
One aspect of the following day was not a great omen for the future of the World’s Fair, despite the fact that it lessened the load of the various modes of transport: The attendance only reached 10,000, and thus, neither the Alley ‘L’ cars headed to Sixty-third Street, nor the yellow Illinois Central cattle cars felt strain capacity-wise (qtd. in Weimann, 241; 64). Economic conditions, in addition to the lack of completion of several elements of the fair, were seen as the roots of the lack of attendance. Meanwhile, productivity to finish the fair would be incentivized, and special commemorative days planned, including Chicago Day (64).
Regardless of the various levels of crowds of people who took the elevated roads, they were still useful enough for widely respected people to board. For instance, in the May 7, 1893 issue of the Chicago Daily Tribune, the itinerary of naval officers is laid out. Before being taken to the World’s Fair by way of elevated road, they enjoyed lunch at Mayor Harrison’s abode, followed by drinks at the Illinois Club; clearly, the new rails were still seen as impressive amid the event (30).
When the Jackson Park ‘L’ station opened on May 12, 1893 (two weeks after the fair debuted), it was above an annex to the rear of the fair’s Transportation Building, where Hayes and Cornell drives intersect; thus, upon arrival, passengers could take the Intramural Railway, enter said building, or walk into the fair itself. Nevertheless, it has been said of the elevated road’s operation “During late night and early morning hours, the fair grounds were closed and trains terminated at the Stony Island station a mere several hundred feet west” (26).
Once again, the effects of such ‘L’ lines were discussed in terms of real estate in the Chicago Daily Tribune, this time on May 21, 1893. Despite the various opinions on the impact of the World’s Columbian Exposition on Chicago, the increase in transportation options is said in the article to have been beneficial, as the South Side elevated road system extension near Jackson Park that was created and improved upon within a year would have normally taken years to develop, and the express trains by Illinois Central railroad would end up being useful for everyone. Additionally, it is said that the ‘L’ had already connected more people to the city, and that the Alley Elevated Road would “hold out strong inducements to the suburban traffic and will be willing to meet property-owners half way in improving their service,” as recognized by those of the Illinois Central Railway (31). As such, the long-term value of railway advancements such as the ‘L’ started to become clear around this time.
May 21, 1893 was also one of the Sundays the fair was closed on (a practice being questioned in terms of its fairness at the time), and the largest in turnout thus far. Regardless of its closing, according to the New York Times, all modes of transportation were packed from early morning to the night, when “every means of transportation was tested to its fullest capacity”; the elevated roads are stated in the article as one of those modes of travel used, with the passengers taking advantage of the attractions around the fair grounds once they arrived (32). Consequently, the capacity of the transportation systems and their ability to narrowly accommodate everyone was still apparent, even on days the World’s Columbian Exposition was not operational.
May 28, 1893 saw an opportunity for working people to enjoy the World’s Fair on a Sunday, which was the first opportunity for many of those attendees to enjoy the event’s offerings, as described the next day in the Chicago Daily Tribune. The experience of August Sinclair, an employee of a shop in Pullman, is stated within the article, and he makes sure to detail his ride on the elevated railroad (likely the Intramural Railway). Similarly, Thomas McConnell, a clerk in a cigar store, asserts that he will visit the White City by way of a different mode of transportation each time; he went by gripcar that day, would leave by the cable line, and then would visit by boat, from the cattle car, and lastly, on the elevated road, on the following Sundays (33). These experiences of typical working people exemplify how the various elevated railroads became part of the general and full experience for fairgoers.
The South Park Chautauqua had a difficult time throughout the World’s Columbian Exposition, as it was announced on June 5, 1893, that they would cancel all engagements up to June 20 due to the demand taken away by the fair. It is made clear within the corresponding article that the Chautauqua was on the line of the elevated road, and thus, that people would pass it in order to reach the fair grounds, but attendance was not up to par even with the convenience (34). These circumstances foreshadow how utilization of the elevated roads would change over time, due to various needs and events.
In addition to various levels of crowding, the Transportation Building itself dealt with issues. On June 14, 1893, Germany Day at the World’s Fair, “What might have been a disastrous fire” was rid of within minutes by firemen at 5 PM, due to the reporting of a fire “climbing up a draped post” by a guard of the elevated Intramural Railway who was on the roof of the building’s annex. Some books were damaged due to the throwing of water, along with $75,000 worth of paintings, but the work of the employee prevented much worse from happening (35).
The Alley ‘L’ continued its trend of receiving odd, yet alarming, press, as on June 19, 1893, the Chicago Daily Tribune announced that at the Cottage Avenue station, a young woman “had a narrow escape from serious injuries, if not from death,” as her dress had gotten caught in a guard rail, and thus, dragged her against a fence at the station; eventually, the dress released, the train stopped, and she went on board with only bruises to tell her story, regardless of the harsh rumors that subsequently spread (36).
The eager criticism portrayed by the New York Times became further apparent on June 23, 1893, the date on which the aforementioned article entitled “HOW TO SEE THE WORLD’S FAIR” was published. Within it, the promise of taking one’s steam yacht to Jackson Park is mentioned, and the elevated train is said to be the “least eligible option” for transit, with its tedium and lack of interesting views; the “intramural (elevated) railway” is seen as a way to view the grounds as a whole, all the while (1). A more positive perspective on elevated railways is present in an article published in the same newspaper on July 2, 1893 and projected to New Yorkers, though. The Illinois Central Railroad, which traveled from Congress Street to Sixtieth Street in eighteen minutes and for ten cents, accompanying the suburban railroads of this type of road, is mentioned as another type of railroad travel, but the Alley Elevated Railroad is particularly highlighted. Along with being seen as inexpensive, a mode with a large capacity due to constant trains, and smooth (if not albeit inconvenient for those outside of proprietary hotel area on the South Side, due to its relatively southern location), the following quotation demonstrates the perceived qualities of the ‘L’ (37):
The most cleanly and enjoyable method of making the trip at the present time is by means of the Alley Elevated Railroad, which starts at Congress Street in the alley between Wabash Avenue and State Street, and lands its passengers on the roof of the Transportation Building, within the fair grounds. It takes about forty minutes to make the trip.
The commercial value of the entire area nearby the World’s Columbian Exposition is exemplified in the July 3, 1893 issue of the Chicago Daily Tribune. An article tells of employees of the Grand Opera-House and the Midway Plaisance, and how they had “quarreled over the right of possession and use of a bill board under the elevated railroad at Sixty-first street”; additionally, the areas around the World’s Fair and Washington Park & their nearby modes of transit are said to be the primary areas to post bills, as ten gangs were present in the area between the city to Sixty-first Street to do so throughout both of the past two days (38). Evidently, the prospects of having so many guaranteed, corralled viewers, even outside of the fair grounds themselves, enticed people.
On July 4, 1893, the crowds for the World’s Fair must have been unbearable, as an article entitled “CRUSH ON THE ALLEY ELEVATED ROAD” with the subtitle “Traditional Sardine Box Pails in Comparison with the Packed Cars” was published in the Chicago Daily Tribune on the day following. The crowds began to form at 9 AM, and one man claimed that it took him half an hour to enter the turnstiles; people tried to walk further and board at the next stations, but entering the platforms was “literally impossible.” 30-40 minutes was the length of time the trains took, which was typical for the system, but it took three minutes to unload passengers. Although the load lightened up for a bit as time went on, the stream of people did not let up, as one person counted 340 passengers coming down the stairs from a single train, with more people likely going through the station itself. Many visitors rested at the stations, and some were in “half-fainting condition,” while many resorted to taking street cars. People from the South Side were not even able to exit at their corresponding stations, and before midnight, the “Alley ‘L’ ran trains without stopping between Congress and Thirty-ninth streets”; the World’s Fair crowd thinned out at 12:45 AM, and finally became nearly nonexistent as they arrived downtown at 2 AM (39). As shown, the ‘L’ still demonstrated its helpfulness, but it even then could barely handle the mass of humanity. Such an event is also explained within the same newspaper and on the same date, in which the crowd of 10,000 people waiting at the Illinois Central Terminal Station when the majority of the visitors left the fair is also mentioned. As for the elevated roads, while the article’s subtitle states “Alley L Handles Its Patrons Skillfully,” it is claimed that employees even resorted to climbing on the ticket booths and begging for people to utilize other forms of transportation, since “it was swamped, overwhelmed, snowed under, and crowded up” and could essentially not handle such a crowd (40).
All the while, the impact of the ‘L’ must have remained, as a Chicago Daily Tribune article from July 21, 1893 states that a man living on Newport Avenue told the newspaper the following, reminiscent of the offerings of the South Side ‘L’ (41):
Now what we need on the growing North Side is an elevated road that will run night and day that we can generally depend on and that will accommodate the great class of night workers now obliged to walk a mile or more after riding three miles in a nasty horse car, for the night cars are old style and rickety, before he gets home.
The ‘L’ is heavily described in an article published in the Chicago Daily Tribune on July 23, 1893, and it begins by describing the relief South Siders felt when the elevated road, seen as convenient and useful, would accompany the cable cars seen as “primitive” for “progressive” Chicago. Pushing & shoving, not having money ready, arriving on the platform just as the train departs, rushing to middle seats, taking up space with shopping bags, becoming angry when they (being those in the last car) learn they must walk through the next car to reach the platform, and showing general impatience & a lack of manners–all of these antics of new passengers are humorously depicted following the previous statements. The antecedent, and now depleting, hope for the pleasantness of the ‘L’ is depicted by the following quotation (42):
All that has passed. The road has been extended to the White City. The World’s Fair is in full blast. The population living along the line of Alley road or contiguous thereto is sufficient within itself to nearly test the full capacity of the company. But now, added to that large population, is the constantly increasing number of strangers to whom a ride on an elevated road is as much of an event as was steamboat travel fifty years ago to a man who lived on an island town or on a farm.
Once again, despite its criticism, people were willing to give credit to the transit options of the World’s Fair. In particular, “noted writer” Charles Dudley Warner stated “The facilities of transportation are unrivaled from all directions; probably never before could so many people be so safely handled in an hour” in regards to the many options, including the suburban trains, cable lines, and the elevated road (43).
Trains in general for the City of Chicago still had opponents, though, as Miller J. Scott, a “practical railroad man,” asserted the dangers of railroads, along with claims that track elevation was hopeless and expensive, businesses would move out of the cities, and that regular trains would do worse between the suburbs & the city if elevated systems were completed. As a whole, he explains his plan of moving depots from the center to the borders of Chicago, while also claiming in the August 6, 1893 issue of the Chicago Daily Tribune that “every day which sees Chicago’s growth will see a rising of the menace of railroads in the city” (44).
On August 17, 1893, the Chicago Daily Tribune published other criticism, this time of an estimation done by the New York Evening Post that a six-day visit to the World’s Columbian Exposition cost $76, as the Tribune author then claims that $66 is more reasonable. The cost of the elevated road to and from Jackson park is revealed in this dismissal, as it is said that the $1 claimed by the Evening Post to cover incidentals was far too high, asserting that the ten cents per person paid per day for the ride was “all which could be put under this head.” For comparison, admission to the fair cost 50 cents (45).
Triumphant praise finally was sung on August 26, 1893, as published in an article entitled “THE TEST OF TRANSPORTATION TO AND FROM THE FAIR” from the Chicago Daily Tribune. The article asserts that on Illinois Day, which garnered 300,000 people, the attendees were “accommodated without hurrying or crowding” by the various modes of transit, including the elevated road. Of the various concerns about the utilization of Jackson Park for the fair, and thus the claims made by exposition officials, such as the ones that the Illinois Central Railroad would increase their number of tracks (which would then be elevated to increase safety) and that the “elevated road would be pushed forward and a strong effort would be made to have it finished by opening day,” it is said that they had been verified. Terminal facilities and their use is the one issue spotlighted in the article, but otherwise, the test of Illinois Day showed that the worries of Jackson Park had been proven unnecessary for future crowds of 400,000; the following is even boasted and questioned (46):
What other city in the United States could have handled that vast crowd of nearly 300,000 people without the maximum of discomfort, even if it could have handled them at all?
Businesses even started to utilize the elevated roads as a way to attract guests. For instance, the Vermont Hotel, with rates of $1 to $5 per day, included in their advertisement published on August 31, 1893 the fact that their hotel was a five-minute walk away from the elevated road station at Fifty-first street, “both lines running direct to the Fair Grounds and the business center.” As a result, it is clear that proximity to the elevated roads, and thus the World’s Fair, was a selling point for the lodging options in Chicago (47).
In preparation for Chicago Day on October 9, an article was published on September 3, 1893, stating that there would be no need for people to worry about transportation, since many options (such as the elevated road) were available, and “a million of people” could comfortably fit in Jackson Park without crowding (48). Perhaps the previously-mentioned Illinois Day helped soothe the worries regarding such hordes of people expected to attend the pride-filled day, just as expected.
Potential problems with the elevated roads were not completely rid of, despite the increasing optimism portrayed by the City of Chicago, perhaps foreshadowing later situations. In fact, on September 9, 1893, it was announced that on the day before, on a south-bound elevated train, two wheels had loosened and subsequently ran off the track until the train itself stopped moving, as “A hot box burned the packing and loosened the journals of two wheels on the coach.” A forty-minute delay occurred for outgoing traffic, but the rattled passengers remained safe, thankfully (49). Later, on September 19, 1893, it was declared that “Three damage suits for $50,000 each were commenced in the Superior Court yesterday against the World’s Columbian Exposition, H.N. Higinbotham, D.H. Burnham, J.B. Herzog, and T.J. O’Connor,” as the three, Jules Van Bresbrouck, Eugene Le Neuf, and Eugene Fay, claimed false imprisonment and malicious prosecution after trouble occurred when they were not allowed to purchase tickets for a ride on the ‘L’ to the city (50).
To further prepare for the expected crowds Chicago Day would bring to the World’s Columbian Exposition, “special arrangements” had been made by those running the various methods of transportation. After completing preparations, expectations for the extent of travel accommodations were published in the Chicago Daily Tribune on October 8, 1893; from 7 AM to noon, 519,162 people could be handled, 72,000 of which would be carried singularly by the Alley Elevated Road, with the Chicago City Railway Company’s Cottage Grove Avenue & State Street lines, the Illinois Central Railroad Company’s express trains & suburban trains, and the World’s Fair Steamship Company handling the rest. From 10 PM to midnight, 367,208 passengers could be transported, 115,200 of which would be due to the Alley Elevated Road specifically (51).
Those preparations and their general optimism did not turn out as officials had hoped, as demonstrated by the article published on October 10, 1893 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Chicago day brought an experience to the Alley ‘L’ road that had never been seen before, as crowds began to form at 6 AM at the Congress Street terminal, and each six-car train carried at least 1,000 people. The following stations did not hold much hope either, and at 9:30 AM, when the crowds slowed down on July 4, “Literally tens of thousands” still were determined to reach the stations; a reprieve that lasted under two hours was had from approximately noon to 2 PM, until the crowds subsequently rose again. The following quotation aptly demonstrates the near-insanity of the entire situation (52):
They were prepared to do a business as large as was done July 4, and perhaps a little more. But they did not dream that an army such as overran kingdoms in ages of barbaric war would descend upon the transportation lines which led to the Dream City and clamor to be carried. A sufficient share of that multitude attacked–that is the word–the elevated road, to cause it to comprehend in less than an hour that even were its facilities doubled it could not transport the frantic applicants for standing or clinging room, or breathing space on the trains.
On October 11, 1893, more accurate estimations of the crowds on Chicago day were presented, being 2,556,616 people as a whole (much more than had been expected; “ECLIPSES ALL RECORDS” was a subtitle). In particular, the Illinois Central railroad had 738,329 passengers, while the Alley ‘L’ road “carried 294,986, and did the business without accident or serious delay” (53). Consequently, the day could have been viewed as a success business-wise, but as for its pleasantness–not so much.
Not much of note seemed to occur for the end of the World’s Columbian Exposition. On October 31, 1893, though, the Jackson Park Station closed, as it was not expected to be useful after the World’s Fair; thus, the end of the line became the nearby Stony Island, which was then renamed Jackson Park Station. Consequently, the original Jackson Park Station became both the ‘L’ station that existed for the shortest amount of time, and the first one to close (26).
After the official closing of the World’s Fair, when people were still permitted to walk the grounds, 8,042 were admitted on November 3, 1893, and the following was stated about the various railways (54):
Now that the World’s Fair is over the railroads are beginning to reduce their train service as the passenger business is expected to be light for the next few months.
At the time, losses were still being dealt with, though. For instance, it was announced in the November 19, 1893 issue of the Chicago Daily Tribune that S.S. Gable was looking for his son, B. Frank Gable, who was left on the platform of an elevated train, due to the doors closing before he could enter, on October 19. After two days, the parents left the city, to find that he had not arrived back home in York, PA. Consequently, $100 was the reward for anyone who could find him (55).
The effects of the ‘L’ were still apparent on December 23, 1893, as Ald. Finkler proposed the existence of a Chicago Elevated Rapid Transit railway company, known as “the fifth of its kind for the North Division” (56). Clearly, this somewhat controversial mode of transportation continued to have people desiring its integration within the City of Chicago.
Continuous utilization of the elevated train is showcased in a short section published in the Chicago Daily Tribune on May 11, 1897, as it states that journalist Opie Read wrote to the newspaper, stating that he had heard a man on the elevated train compliment the newspaper’s daily book column, to which Read agreed. The Tribune states of this occurrence, “Opie Read’s loyalty to literary Chicago comes to the surface in a new and gratifying phase” (57). The significance of this story is not necessarily the importance of the Tribune‘s book column, but instead is the notion that those admired by the City of Chicago would join other Chicagoans aboard the elevated trains, even following the conclusion of the World’s Fair; recall that a prediction of this quality was made following a trial run of the elevated road.
As expected, the new modes of transit showcased at the World’s Columbian Exposition did not simply disappear following the fair’s closing. First of all, although the original Jackson Park Station’s existence was fleeting, other ‘L’ stations involved with its history developed a lengthier story. As for what happened to the Garfield (or Fifty-fifth) Station, the stop at which its passengers exited while on their way to the fair’s dedication, the CTA Green Line formed on February 21, 1993, which included the South Side Englewood-Jackson Park service and Garfield Station. The following year, though, this line closed for renovations; on September 15, 1999, it was announced that Garfield would receive a new station altogether. On July 16, 2001, the new station on the north side of Garfield Boulevard opened, and instantaneously, the old Garfield station officially went out of service. This old station house from 1892 is considered a landmark, and thus, it remains the oldest ‘L’ station, and is visible to the present day (58). Also notable, and relevant to the entire history of the elevated railways, is the fact that in the early 2000s, the CTA made the single quotes of the ‘L’ part of its official name (8).
As mentioned before, an elevated railroad did exist within the grounds of the fair, as explained by Jessie Winston, whose stories of the exposition were revealed in the Chicago Daily Tribune on October 16, 1932. Of the road, she states (59):
About noon we entered the Fair Grounds near the Intra Mural railway. This is an elevated road that goes through the grounds and makes a journey of seven miles in the round trip. It is parallel with the elevated road at the starting point that runs to the city. The little ticket offices almost join.
This railroad was quite unique at the time, as the ‘L’ still utilized steam locomotives upon its opening. In fact, the Intramural Railway was essentially the first of its kind, and its large cost of $1 million could not even be covered by its six million passengers, although it has been said that this train resembles the Disneyland Monorail (60). This electric railroad showed its value, even just within Chicago, when by the end of July 1898, all of the South Side ‘L’ ran electric (61).
The ‘L’ as a whole is still quite active, as a transit service of 125 years of age; trains conduct 750,000 rides on an average weekday, and can travel over 221,000 miles per day. Some of the track from the beginning of its run still exists, but it has expanded to 1,500 cars that travel on 100 miles of “elevated lines, at-grade rights-of-way and subways” (61). According to the Chicago Transit Authority’s 2016 “Annual Ridership Report” for 2016, the Garfield station on the Green Line received an average ridership of 1,369 people on weekdays, 872 on Saturdays, and 640 on Sundays, totaling to 432,564 passengers, a 8.7% decrease from 2015; as part of the Red Line for rush periods, ridership was higher in every regard, with 1,186,158 being the year’s total, a 5.3% decrease from the year prior. As a whole, in regards to the statistics for their rail system, the CTA states the following (62):
Rail ridership in 2016 was at its second-highest annual level of 238.6 million. Rail rides for the year decreased modestly by 1.5 percent from 2015’s all-time high. Also in 2016, CTA recorded its highest one-day rail ridership total ever, when it provided 1.15 million rail rides on Nov. 4, 2016, the day of the Cubs World Series Championship parade in Chicago. The CTA has continued to see strong rail ridership relative to bus ridership trends, in line with trends seen at other major U.S. transit agencies.
Finally, as demonstrated in a New York Times article, written by Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel, the ‘L’ as the city’s transit system is still a significant component of Chicago’s success in terms of transportation, even when compared with cities of grandeur such as New York. Within the article published on July 3, 2017, Emanuel asserts that unlike those of other major cities, 85 percent of the passengers of Chicago’s transit system, “the nation’s second most used,” are satisfied with its offerings; he also tells of its history, its start as “four wooden cars powered by coal and steam,” and of how instead of focusing on expansion, the City of Chicago has placed emphasis on reliability, leading to great success. Furthermore, the system’s various improvements are boasted, along with the notion that its local management structure has been a contributing component to its achievements. The major point of the piece of commentary reveals itself at the end, as he states that federal support is vital for these transit authorities, which can induce great improvements in terms of economics, productivity, quality of life, growth in cities, and the lessening of emissions. The following quotation summarizes how Chicago has stood out, due to the ‘L’ (63):
When Chicago’s elevated train first soared above the streets and between the skyscrapers 125 years ago, it captured the imagination of Americans and visitors from around the world who rode its wooden cars to the 1893 World’s Fair. It’s a lesson for us all: The only way to keep a city moving is to invest in its future.
Consequently, although the ‘L’ is now largely utilized for commuting, its ability to handle hordes of people in terms of business & monumental events in Chicago at the present day, along with the unique levels of satisfaction it still garners, truly proves the transit system’s status as an echo of the exposition.
This week’s fun picture of relevance is one I took a couple of weeks while in Chicago, since my excitement to see a W Hotels advertisement of sorts took over at the time (I discussed this event in my post entitled “An Afternoon in the City.”) Right afterward, I noticed that the ‘L’ tracks of the Loop were in the photo; this is not the area discussed within this post, but I hope you all can forgive me.
Images of the old Garfield and Jackson Park ‘L’ stations can be found at these locations, among others:
- M.S. “HOW TO SEE THE WORLD’S FAIR.” New York Times (1857-1922): 9. Jun 23 1893. ProQuest. Web. 14 July 2017.
- “THEY FAIL TO AGREE.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 3. May 01 1892. ProQuest. Web. 16 July 2017.
- “ORDERED FOR THEIR ROAD LINE.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 1. May 07 1892. ProQuest. Web. 16 July 2017.
- “TO EXTEND ITS LINES.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 8. May 24 1892. ProQuest. Web. 16 July 2017.
- “FAIR DIRECTORS WIN.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 1. May 24 1892. ProQuest. Web. 16 July 2017.
- “CHICAGO’S ELEVATED ROAD.” New York Times (1857-1922): 5. May 28 1892. ProQuest. Web. 16 July 2017.
- “TRIAL OF THE ‘L.’.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 8. May 28 1892. ProQuest. Web. 16 July 2017.
- Gunderson, Erica. “Ask Geoffrey: How the ‘L’ Do You Spell That?” Chicago Tonight | WTTW. WTTW, 24 Feb. 2016. Web. 19 July 2017.
- “RUNNING ON THE ‘L.’.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 9. Jun 07 1892. ProQuest. Web. 16 July 2017.
- “DISCUSSED ‘L’ ROADS.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 3. Jul 01 1892. ProQuest. Web. 16 July 2017.
- “TO THE FAIR GROUNDS.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 8. Aug 04 1892. ProQuest. Web. 16 July 2017.
- “WORKING BY NIGHT AND DAY.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 2. Aug 09 1892. ProQuest. Web. 16 July 2017.
- “REAL ESTATE MARKET.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 30. Sep 25 1892. ProQuest. Web. 17 July 2017.
- “SOUTH SIDE ALLEY ELEVATED ROAD.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 9. Oct 13 1892. ProQuest. Web. 17 July 2017.
- “ARRANGEMENTS FOR TRANSPORTATION.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 5. Oct 20 1892. ProQuest. Web. 17 July 2017.
- “CROWDS HANDLED BY THE RAILWAYS.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 4. Oct 22 1892. ProQuest. Web. 17 July 2017.
- “GETTING THEM HOME.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 3. Oct 24 1892. ProQuest. Web. 17 July 2017.
- “TRANSPORTATION AT THE FAIR.” New York Times (1857-1922): 4. Oct 24 1892. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “HANDLING THE WORLD’S FAIR MAIL.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 8. Nov 02 1892. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “MAIL FOR THE FAIR.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 1. Nov 16 1892. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “‘L’ ROAD AT THE FAIR.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 12. Jan 08 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “OUT OF CONCESSIONS.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 9. Jan 14 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “TO TALK OF TRACKS.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 1. Feb 21 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “FOR A CITY OF TENTS.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 9. Mar 11 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “INVITATIONS TO THE FAIR.” New York Times (1857-1922): 8. Apr 23 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “Jackson Park.” Www.Chicago-L.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 July 2017.
- “RENTS ON THE SOUTH SIDE.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 1. Apr 24 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “HOW TO REACH JACKSON PARK.” New York Times (1857-1922): 19. Apr 30 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “NEAR A HALF MILLION.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 3. May 02 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “FOR NAVAL OFFICERS.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 3. May 07 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “REAL ESTATE MARKET.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 30. May 21 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “A NOVEL HOSPITAL EXHIBIT.” New York Times (1857-1922): 8. May 22 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “THEIR ONLY CHANCE.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 2. May 29 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “CANCEL THEIR DATES.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 1. Jun 05 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “GERMAN DAY AT THE FAIR.” New York Times (1857-1922): 2. Jun 15 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “KEPT AWAY FROM THE HOSPITAL.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 2. Jun 19 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- M.S. “GERMANY AT THE WORLD’S FAIR.” New York Times (1857-1922): 17. Jul 02 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “BILL POSTERS STILL WAGE A MERRY WAR.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 3. Jul 03 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “CRUSH ON THE ALLEY ELEVATED ROAD.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 2. Jul 05 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “HOURS TO GET AWAY.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 2. Jul 05 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “DEMAND MORE CARS.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 8. Jul 21 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “ON THE ALLEY ‘L.’.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 27. Jul 23 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “WONDER OF A WORLD.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 29. Jul 30 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “TO STOP SLAUGHTER.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 25. Aug 06 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- R, C. M. “COST OF THE CHICAGO TRIP.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 9. Aug 17 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “THE TEST OF TRANSPORTATION TO AND FROM THE FAIR.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 12. Aug 26 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “Display Ad 5 — no Title.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 9. Aug 31 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “CHICAGO DAY.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 12. Sep 03 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “CAPT. STREETER’S BOILER IS STOLEN.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 3. Sep 09 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “THREE SUITS FOR $50,000 EACH.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 2. Sep 19 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “TRAFFIC ARRANGEMENTS COMPLETE.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 2. Oct 08 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “ALLEY “L” TRAINS ARE SWAMPED.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 4. Oct 10 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “2,556,616.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 9. Oct 11 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “Items.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 8. Nov 03 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “Viking Ship Reaches St. Louis.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 3. Nov 19 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- “COUNCIL PROCEEDINGS.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 6. Dec 23 1893. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2017.
- READ, OPIE. “AMONG THE BOOKS OF THE DAY.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922): 10. May 11 1897. ProQuest. Web. 19 July 2017.
- “Garfield.” Www.Chicago-L.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 July 2017.
- “Little Girl’s Story of Chicago’s World Fair in 1893, as Written Nearly 40 Years Ago.” Chicago Sunday Tribune 16 Oct. 1932, sec. 8: 7. Chicago Tribune. Tribune Media. Web. 19 July 2017.
- Reuter, Kara. “Views of the Fair.” ECUIP : The Digital Library : Social Studies : The Columbian Exposition. University of Chicago, n.d. Web. 19 July 2017.
- “125 Years of ‘L’ Service.” Transit Chicago. Chicago Transit Authority, 2017. Web. 19 July 201.
- Chicago Transit Authority: Ridership Analysis and Reporting. Annual Ridership Report: Calendar Year 2016. Rep. Chicago Transit Authority, 1 Feb. 2017. Web. 19 July 201.
- Emanuel, Rahm. “In Chicago, the Trains do Run on Time.” New York Times, Late Edition (East Coast) ed.Jul 03 2017. ProQuest. Web. 19 July 2017.
- Larson, Erik. “Opening Day.” The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair That Changed America. New York: Vintage, 2004. 239-41. Print, quoted in Weimann, Jeanne Madeline. The Fair Women. Academy Chicago, 1981. 556.